Negative family relationships, 7374 peer victimisation through bullying, 75 and maltreatment are common risks for depression. Activity in this circuit consistently seems raised in patients with major depression, and both established and novel treatments for depression could work through reduction of Depression research articles activity.
High concentrations of sex steroid receptors have been Depression research articles within this circuit, 23 and might provide a biological mechanism for why girls have higher risk of depression than boys.
If you are one of the more than 19 million teens and adults in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. Although the reasons for this post-pubertal-onset sex difference are not fully understood, adolescent depression is more closely tied to female hormonal changes than to chronological age, which suggests that depression is directly linked to pubertal changes in hormone—brain relations.
Depression can also be missed if the primary presenting problems are unexplained physical symptoms, eating disorders, anxiety, refusal to attend school, decline in academic performance, sub stance misuse, or behavioural problems. Sex differences emerge in both circuits. Detection and diagnosis A diagnostic approach is needed when decisions about treatment of adolescents with depression have to be made.
They include enhanced social understanding and self-awareness, 21 changes in brain circuits involved in responses to reward and danger, and increased reported stress levels, especially in girls.
There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Like many other common health disorders, several risk factors interact to increase the risk of depression in a probabilistic way.
Some genetic risks are shared with disruptive behaviour problems. Symptoms can include Feeling sad or "empty" Loss of interest in favorite activities Overeating, or not wanting to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain.
Two interrelated neural circuits and associated modulatory systems have been closely linked to risk for depression, both in adults and in adolescents.
Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided.
Psychosocial risk factors Much research has been done into the association between depression and environmental factors such as exposures to acute stressful events eg, personal injury, bereavement 6869 and chronic adversity eg, maltreatment, family discord, bullying by peers, poverty, physical illness.
Distal risks such as inherited factors and adversity in early life might directly and indirectly predispose to depression. The other key circuit implicated in depression encompasses the striatum and its connection to both the PFC and ventral dopamine-based systems.
Family and twin studies 60 suggest that anxiety and depression share inherited liability, but anxiety in childhood tends to precede later depression during adolescence.
Distal factors, together with hormonal and maturational changes can also alter individual sensitivity to stressors.
Longitudinal research, 5455 studies of children who are genetically unrelated to their mothers, 5256 and treatment trials of maternal depression 57 suggest that the risk effects of early maternal depression are mediated through exposure to later, continued maternal symptoms or associated psychosocial adversity.
So far, no replicated, significant findings have emerged. But, unlike other medical illnesses, depression is widely unrecognized and untreated, and often remains an unresolved issue throughout life.
One of the most robust epidemiological findings is the emergence of a strong female preponderance about 2: Depression is defined as a cluster of specific symptoms with associated impairment. Work in animals not only has shown that the immature, adolescent brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to the effects of these genetic and environmental influences, 8990 but has also identified specific brain regions where changes in circuitry occur.
Although one meta-analysis failed to support the 5-HTTLPR gene-environment interaction finding, 85 it was criticised on many grounds, 8386 and a re-analysis of data showed significant evidence of the importance of gene-environment interactions, especially in the context of maltreatment or a medical illness.
Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Like the first circuit, this one also continues to mature through adolescence.
This approach allows clinicians to apply evidence from treatment trials, make decisions on the risk-benefit ratio for medication, and rationalise referral to expensive specialist resources if available.
Depression and Baby Boomers An article on how depression affects those in the "baby boomer" generation.Depression Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of depression.
Feature Article Study confirms that depression can shorten life.
It's long been believed people with major depression and some other serious mental illnesses tend to live shorter lives than others—and die more quickly than expected when they develop illnesses such as.
Watch video · New Research on Treating Depression: Following a modified Mediterranean diet helped some patients being treated for depression in a study. Atypical Depression (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Depression (PDQ) (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish Depression and Alzheimer's Disease (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish.
Jan 16, Depression: Depression, in psychology, a mood or emotional state that is marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life.
the link between depression, disordered REM sleep, and abnormalities of the amygdala has led to new avenues of research into the neurobiology and. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.
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